Session II: Borrowing and Internal Creation

 

Exercise I: Here are a number of recent accessions to the English language. Classify them by type of word formation (and try to explain what they mean):

 

pooper scooper, to bookmark, cyberland, brainiac, to sample, netizen, to lurk (= used of someone who enters a chatroom and spies on other people), cosmeceutical, crusty (= young person without a job or permanent home), lap dancing, microbrew, extreme (sports, skiing, etc.)

 

Exercise II: What grammatical relations are expressed by the following compounds? (e.g. headache = my head aches = subject + verb [or: agentive noun]; other categories: verb+object, verb+adverbial, subject + object, subject + complement, verbless)

 

sunrise, window-cleaner, oaktree, tax-payer, windmill, crime report, living-room, chewing-gum, working party, chairperson, blackboard, man-eating, rock-hard, law-abiding, handmade, breathtaking, Reformstau, Schulerfolg, Strukturwandel, Wissenschaftspark, Einschaltquote, Lauschangriff, berufsbegleitend, handverlesen

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

brevity

semantic ambiguity (Elterngespräche = Gespräche über Eltern or Gespräche von Eltern untereinander or Gespräche von Lehrern mit Eltern?)

 

grammatical irregularity (Orangenpflücker vs. Zitronenfalter)

 

Exercise III: Fill in the missing compounds. What similarities and differences between English and German compounding are discernible?

 

English

German

automatisation

 

computerization

 

globalization

 

decartellization

 

destabilization

 

dehumanization

 

remilitarization

 

reprivatization

 

 

 

wheelchair-accessible

 

tax-deductible

 

resource-rich

 

machine-washable

 

 

 

society-destroying

 

export-inhibiting

 

pain-killing

 

 

 

computer-assisted

 

vitamin-enriched

 

state-funded

 

hearing-impaired

 

non-..., (N1 + N2) + N3 (man-machine interaction, teacher-learner conflict, cost-benefit analysis, part-whole relation)

 

 

 

Altenbetreuung

 

Zukunftsvision

 

Stimmenanteil

 

Asylrecht

 

Kanzlerkandidat

 

Exercise IV: When do you think the following groups of words came into (Old, Middle, [early] modern) English? Which languages did they come from? Do you know anything about the circumstances of their arrival?

 

-              awkward, skin, skirt, egg, window, take, hit, muck, reindeer

-              government, sovereign, tax, traitor, cathedral, baptism, adultery, prison, peace, retreat, guard, diamond, robe, appetite, salmon, art, beauty

-              larynx, lunar, pancreas, species, emancipate, virus, tibia, monopoly, encyclopedia

-              crag, bin, cross

-              regal, interrogate, ascend, magnify, infinite

-              bury the hatchet, bartender, prairie schooner, wigwam, stake a claim