Proseminar: Lexicology and Lexicography                                                              Siepmann


2 st. do 18-20


Course Plan




Compulsory Reading (see Reader)

Literature (see bibliography on this page)


What is a word? – Definitions


Lutzeier, Aitchison, Lipka


The lexical inventory of modern English: borrowing and internal creation




What’s in a word? – word meaning in structuralist and cognitive semantics (Hartmann, Lambert, Ndoum)


Blank, Aitchison, Kortmann, Lipka


Relations between words I: paradigmatic lexical relations (Winterhoff, Briller, Hahn) // Relations between words II: syntagmatic lexical relations (collocation, valency)

Kortmann1 // Kortmann2, Herbst

Cruse, Aitchison // Cruse, Hunston, Hoey, Siepmann


Interlingual equivalence between words (Kopinski, Twelker, Münster)

Friederich, Gerzymisch-Arbogast

Leisi, Friederich


Monolingual English dictionaries: a historical survey (Rolka, Stamatoukou)




Monolingual learner’s dictionaries (Lee, Gerlach)




Gathering data for dictionary compilation: corpus linguistics (Lenneberg, Schulte) // Bilingual English-German dictionaries


Sinclair, Kennedy / Hartmann 1994


Abandoning the alphabet: thesauri, vocabulary books, etc.




Examination (Klausur)




This seminar is concerned with questions about the lexicon that are important to linguists and language teachers alike:


What is a word?

What does knowing a word mean?

How can native-speaker knowledge about words be captured in dictionaries?

How large is the English lexicon?

How can we translate lexical items from one language into another?


The answers to such questions are provided by lexicology and lexicography. Long considered the preserve of ‘harmless drudges’ (Samuel Johnson), these disciplines now find themselves at the cutting edge of linguistic research. This is because the advent of computer corpora is enabling lexicographers to search unprecedented riches of authentic data, with the result that the behaviour of lexical items can be described at a hitherto unimagined degree of delicacy. Apart from theoretical questions about the nature of the lexicon, the seminar will also discuss dictionary use and various types of dictionaries: monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, general dictionaries and learners’ dictionaries, print dictionaries and electronic dictionaries (including online dictionaries).


Select Bibliography


1. Research Literature


Aitchison, Jean (20033), Words in the Mind. An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon. Blackwell.


Bauer, Laurie (1998), Vocabulary. Routledge. (read for free at


Blank, Andreas (2001), Einführung in die lexikalische Semantik für Romanisten. Niemeyer.


Cowie, Anthony P. (1999), English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History. Clarendon Press.


Cruse, D.A. (1986), Lexical Semantics. Cambridge University Press.


Crystal, David (1988), The English Language. Penguin.


Fenner, Kirsten (1997), ‘Im Spannungsfeld zwischen Theorie und Praxis. Zum Miteinander von Lexikographie und Linguistik’, Lebende Sprachen 2/97: 53-59.


Friederich, Wolff (1969), Technik des Übersetzens: Englisch und Deutsch. Hueber.


Hartmann, Reinhardt R.K. (1994), ‘The Use of Parallel Text Corpora in the Generation of Translation Equivalents for Bilingual Lexicography’, in Willy Martin et al. (1994), Euralex 1994. Proceedings.

Hartmann, Reinhardt R.K. and G. James (1998), Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. (read for free at

Hausmann, Franz Josef et al. (eds.) (1989/90/91)  Wörterbücher, Dictionaries, Dictionnaires.  Ein internationales Handbuch zur Lexikographie. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft). 3 vls. de Gruyter. 


Herbst, Thomas and K. Popp (eds.) 1999. The Perfect Learner´s  Dictionary?. Tübingen.


Hoey, Michael (2000), ‘A world beyond collocation: new perspectives on vocabulary teaching’, in Michael Lewis (ed.) (2000), Teaching Collocation, 224-243.


Hunston, Susan (2001), ‘Colligation, lexis, pattern, and text’, in Scott, Mike and Geoff Thompson (ed.) (2001) Patterns of Text: In honour of Michael Hoey, 13-34. (read for free at


Jackson, Howard (2002), Lexicography: an Introduction. Routledge. (read for free at


Kennedy, Graeme (1998), An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics. Longman.


Kortmann, Bernd (1999), Linguistik: Essentials. Cornelsen. (Chapters IV and VI)


Landau, Sidney I. (1984) Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. Cambridge University Press.


Leisi, Ernst (1975), Der Wortinhalt: seine Struktur im Deutschen und Englischen. Quelle & Meyer.


Lipka, Leonhard (2002), English Lexicology. Lexical Structure, Word Semantics and Word Formation. Tübingen: Narr.


Lutzeier, Peter R. (1995), Lexikologie. Stauffenburg.

Siepmann, Dirk (2002), ‘Eigenschaften und Formen lexikalischer Kollokationen: Wider ein zu enges Verständnis’, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur 3, 240-263.

Sinclair, John M. (1991) Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford University Press.

Stark, M. (1999) Encyclopedic learners´ dictionaries. A study of their design features from the user’s perspective. Tübingen.

Wordnet (


2. Journals


Cahiers de Lexicologie (articles in French and English;

English Today (

International Journal of Lexicography. (

Lebende Sprachen (Langenscheidt,; publishes articles, glossaries, reviews, „Terminologiedienst“)

Lexique (

Meta (recent issues available online:


3. Dictionaries

a) General-purpose dictionaries

The New Oxford Dictionary of English. 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press

The Chambers Dictionary. 1998.  Edited by Catherine Schwarz. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap

Collins English Dictionary. 52000.  Glasgow: Harper Collins

Concise Oxford Dictionary. 101999. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Longman Dictionary of the English Language. 1991.  New edition.  Edited by Brian O'Kill.  Harlow: Longman

Encarta World English Dictionary. 1999. St. Martin´s Press/Microsoft Encarta

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 42000. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 101993. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster

Random House Webster´s College Dictionary. 31999. New York, NY: Random House

Webster's New World College Dictionary. 41999. New York, NY: Macmillan 

b) Learner’s dictionaries (including collocational dictionaries and vocabulary books[1])

[CIDE] Cambridge International Dictionary of English. 1995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

[CCED] Collins COBUILD English Dictionary. 1995. New edition. London: HarperCollins

[LDCE] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 31995.  London: Longman

[OALD] Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. 62000. Oxford: Oxford University Press

The LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations. 1997. Hove: LTP.

The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. A Guide to Word Combinations. 1986. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

A Dictionary of English Style. 1931. Leipzig: Weber.

Oxford Collocations. Dictionary for Students of English. 2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cambridge Dictionary of American English. 2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Longman Dictionary of American English. A Dictionary for Learners of English. 21997. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.

English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Großer Lernwortschatz Englisch. Munich: Hueber.

Englischer Wortschatz in Sachgruppen. Munich: Hueber.

Exercises in Collocational English. Münster: Aschendorff.

Words for Business. Berlin: Cornelsen.

Jean H. Duffy, Using French Vocabulary. 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (read for free at

Mary E. Crocker, Schaum’s Outline of French Vocabulary. 1985/1998. New York: McGraw Hill. (read for free at

German-English Vocabulary Sheets

c) Dictionary Sites on the Internet

·             OneLook Dictionaries

·             Oxford English Dictionary Online

·             Projekt deutscher Wortschatz (a near-exhaustive dictionary of German and English including collocations):

·             Langenscheidt Dictionaries:

·             A Web of Online Dictionaries:

·             PONS Dictionaries:

·             Specialist Dictionaries and Glossaries: see Proseminar Fachsprache

 d) Dictionaries on CD-ROM or DVD-ROM

Historical Dictionaries

[OED] The Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. Second edition. Prepared by J.A.Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. Oxford: Clarendon Press (20 volumes) 

The Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) on Compact Disc. 1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press 

[SOED] The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 1993. Edited by Lesley Brown. Oxford: Clarendon Press (2 volumes)

The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM. 1996. Oxford CD-ROM

British English

[CHAMBERS] The Chambers Dictionary. 1995. Edinburgh: Chambers 

The Chambers Dictionary on CD-ROM. 1997. London: LiRiSinteractive

[CCELD] Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. 1995. New edition. Findon: HarperCollins

[CCEU] Collins COBUILD English Usage. Findon: HarperCollins

[CCEG] Collins COBUILD English Grammar. Findon:HarperCollins

Collins COBUILD on CD-ROM, Version 1.2. Includes CCELD, CCEU, CCEG, together with a Word Bank containing 5 million words selected from the Collins COBUILD Bank of English corpus. 1995. Findon: HarperCollins 

[CED] Collins English Dictionary. 31995. Glasgow: Collins

[CT] Collins Thesaurus in A-Z Form. 21992. Glasgow: Collins

Collins Electronic English Dictionary & Thesaurus. 1996. Findon: HarperCollins Electronic Reference 

[COD] Concise Oxford Dictionary. 101999. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Concise Oxford Dictionary on CD-ROM. 2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Oxford Compendium 3.0 on CD-ROM, Version 3.0. Includes Concise Oxford Dictionary (9th edition), Oxford Thesaurus, Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations. 1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press

[LDCE] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 31995.  London: Longman

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English on CD-ROM. 2000. London: Longman

[OALD] Oxford Advanced Learner´s Dictionary of Current English. 62000. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Oxford Advanced Learner´s Dictionary of Current English, Version 2.0. Electronic version of 6th edition on CD-ROM. 2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press

American English

[AHD] The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 42000. Edited by Anne H. Soukhanov. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (CD-ROM included).

The American Heritage Talking Dictionary. 1999. Cambridge, MA: The Learning Company

[CDAE] Cambridge Dictionary of American English (CD-ROM included). 2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

[MWCD] Merriam-Webster´s Collegiate Dictionary. 101996. Edited by Frederick C. Mish. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster´s Collegiate Dictionary, Deluxe Audio Edition, Version 1.5 [on CD-ROM]. 1996. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster 

[NHD] The Newbury House Dictionary of American English (CD-ROM included). 1999. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle

[RHD] Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary. 1996. Special second edition. Edited by Stuart Berg Flexner. New York (NY): Random House (The Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, Special Second Edition, is a revised and updated edition of the Random House Dictionary of the English Dictionary, Second Edition, Unabridged)

Random House Webster´s Unabridged Dictionary with Illustrations and Pronunciations. 1996. CD-ROM Version 2.0 (CD-ROM to accompany the Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, Special Second Edition). New York (NY): Random House

[WNWD] Webster's New World College Dictionary. 31996.  New York, NY: Macmillan 

Webster´s New World Dictionary & Thesaurus (on CD-ROM), revised and updated for 1999.  1998. New York, NY: Macmillan Digital Publishing


[1] (learner’s dictionaries = German Lernerwörterbücher, French dictionnaires d’apprentissage; vocabulary book = German Lernwörterbücher; French manuels de vocabulaire, recueils de vocabulaire)